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Aktion zur Geldbeschaffung ; Spendenaktion. You want to reject this entry: To add entries to your own vocabulary , become a member of Reverso community or login if you are already a member.

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You can complete the translation of Aktion given by the German-English Collins dictionary with other dictionaries: Jede Aktion erzeugt eine gleiche und entgegengesetzte Reaktion.

In early October, all hospitals, nursing homes, old-age homes and sanatoria were required to report all patients who had been institutionalised for five years or more, who had been committed as "criminally insane", who were of "non- Aryan race" or who had been diagnosed with any on a list of conditions.

The conditions included schizophrenia, epilepsy, Huntington's chorea , advanced syphilis , senile dementia , paralysis , encephalitis and "terminal neurological conditions generally".

Many doctors and administrators assumed that the reports were to identify inmates who were capable of being drafted for "labour service" and tended to overstate the degree of incapacity of their patients, to protect them from labour conscription.

When some institutions refused to co-operate, teams of T4 doctors or Nazi medical students visited and compiled the lists, sometimes in a haphazard and ideologically motivated way.

The experts were required to make their judgements on the reports, not medical histories or examinations.

Sometimes they dealt with hundreds of reports at a time. Three "death" verdicts condemned the person and as with reviews of children, the process became less rigorous, the range of conditions considered "unsustainable" grew broader and zealous Nazis further down the chain of command increasingly made decisions on their own initiative.

The first gassings in Germany proper took place in January at the Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre. The operation was headed by Brack, who said "the needle belongs in the hand of the doctor.

At trials, Brandt described the process as a "major advance in medical history". The same facilities were also used to kill mentally sound prisoners transferred from concentration camps in Germany, Austria and occupied parts of Poland.

Condemned patients were transferred from their institutions to newly built centres in the T4 Charitable Ambulance buses, called the Community Patients Transports Service.

They were run by teams of SS men wearing white coats, to give it an air of medical care. They were moved again to special treatment Sonderbehandlung centres.

Families were sent letters explaining that owing to wartime regulations, it was not possible for them to visit relatives in these centres.

Most of these patients were killed within 24 hours of arriving at the centres, and their bodies cremated. This was sent to the family along with an urn of ashes random ashes, since the victims were cremated en masse.

The preparation of thousands of falsified death certificates took up most of the working day of the doctors who operated the centres.

During , the centres at Brandenburg, Grafeneck and Hartheim killed nearly 10, people each, while another 6, were killed at Sonnenstein.

In all, about 35, people were killed in T4 operations that year. Operations at Brandenburg and Grafeneck were wound up at the end of the year, partly because the areas they served had been cleared and partly because of public opposition.

In , however, the centres at Bernburg and Sonnenstein increased their operations, while Hartheim where Wirth and Franz Stangl were successively commandants continued as before.

As a result, another 35, people were killed before August , when the T4 programme was officially shut down by Hitler.

Even after that date, however, the centres continued to be used to kill concentration camp inmates: In , Gitta Sereny conducted a series of interviews with Stangl, who was in prison in Düsseldorf after having been convicted of co-responsibility for killing , people as commandant of the Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps in Poland.

Stangl gave Sereny a detailed account of the operations of the T4 programme based on his time as commandant of the killing facility at the Hartheim institute.

Some were in no mental state to know what was happening to them, but many were perfectly sane, and for them various forms of deception were used.

They were told they were at a special clinic where they would receive improved treatment, and were given a brief medical examination on arrival.

They were induced to enter what appeared to be a shower block, where they were gassed with carbon monoxide the ruse was also used at extermination camps.

The SS functionaries and hospital staff associated with Aktion T4 in the German Reich were paid from the central office at Tiergartenstrasse 4 in Berlin from the spring of The SS and police from SS-Sonderkommando Lange responsible for murdering the majority of patients in the annexed territories of Poland since October , took their salaries from the normal police fund, supervised by the administration of the newly formed Wartheland district; the programme in Germany and occupied Poland was overseen by Heinrich Himmler.

In Polish psychiatric hospitals no one was left behind. Killings were inflicted using gas-vans, sealed army bunkers and machine guns; families were not informed about the murdered relatives and the empty wards were handed over to the SS.

After the official end of the euthanasia programme in , most of the personnel and high-ranking officials, as well as gassing technology and the techniques used to deceive victims, were transferred under the jurisdiction of the national medical division of the Reich Interior Ministry.

Further gassing experiments with the use of mobile gas chambers Einsatzwagen were conducted at Soldau concentration camp by Herbert Lange following Operation Barbarossa.

Beginning in the spring of , three killing factories were built secretly in east-central Poland. The SS officers responsible for the earlier Aktion T4 , including Wirth, Stangl and Irmfried Eberl , had important roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution" for the next two years.

In January , Brack commissioned a paper from Professor of Moral Theology at the University of Paderborn , Joseph Mayer, on the likely reactions of the churches in the event of a state euthanasia programme being instituted.

Brack showed this paper to Hitler in July, and it may have increased his confidence that the "euthanasia" programme would be acceptable to German public opinion.

There were those who opposed the T4 programme within the bureaucracy. Lothar Kreyssig , a district judge and member of the Confessing Church , wrote to Gürtner protesting that the action was illegal since no law or formal decree from Hitler had authorised it.

Gürtner replied, "If you cannot recognise the will of the Führer as a source of law, then you cannot remain a judge", and had Kreyssig dismissed.

Hitler told Bouhler that, "the Führer's Chancellery must under no circumstances be seen to be active in this matter.

In the towns where the killing centres were located, many people saw the inmates arrive in buses, saw the smoke from the crematoria chimneys and noticed that the buses were returning empty.

In Hadamar, ashes containing human hair rained down on the town. The T4 programme was no secret. Despite the strictest orders, some of the staff at the killing centres talked about what was going on.

In some cases families could tell that the causes of death in certificates were false, e. In other cases, several families in the same town would receive death certificates on the same day.

During , rumours of what was taking place spread and many Germans withdrew their relatives from asylums and sanatoria to care for them at home, often with great expense and difficulty.

In some places doctors and psychiatrists co-operated with families to have patients discharged or if the families could afford it, transferred them to private clinics beyond the reach of T4.

Other doctors "re-diagnosed" patients so that they no longer met the T4 criteria, which risked exposure when Nazi zealots from Berlin conducted inspections.

The first open protest against the removal of people from asylums took place at Absberg in Franconia in February and others followed. The SD report on the incident at Absberg noted that "the removal of residents from the Ottilien Home has caused a great deal of unpleasantness" and described large crowds of Catholic townspeople, among them Party members, protesting against the action.

Anna Wödl, a nurse and mother of child with a disability, vehemently petitioned to Hermann Linden at the Reich Ministry of the Interior in Berlin to prevent her son, Alfred, from being transferred from Gugging, where he lived and which also became a euthanasia center.

Wödl failed and Alfred was sent to Am Spiegelgrund, where he was killed on 22 February His brain was preserved in formaldehyde for "research" and stored in the clinic for sixty years.

Bodelschwingh negotiated directly with Brandt and indirectly with Hermann Göring , whose cousin was a prominent psychiatrist. Braune had meetings with Justice Minister Gürtner, who was always dubious about the legality of the programme.

Gürtner later wrote a strongly worded letter to Hitler protesting against it; Hitler did not read it but was told about it by Lammers.

Stahle said "The fifth commandment Thou shalt not kill, is no commandment of God but a Jewish invention". Bishop Heinrich Wienken of Berlin, a leading member of the Caritas Association , was selected by the Fulda episcopal synod to represent the views of the Catholic Church in meetings with T4 operatives.

In , Michael Burleigh wrote. Wienken seems to have gone partially native in the sense that he gradually abandoned an absolute stance based on the Fifth Commandment in favour of winning limited concessions regarding the restriction of killing to 'complete idiots', access to the sacraments and the exclusion of ill Roman Catholic priests from these policies.

Despite a decree issued by the Vatican on 2 December stating that the T4 policy was "against natural and positive Divine law" and that "The direct killing of an innocent person because of mental or physical defects is not allowed", the Catholic Church hierarchy in Germany decided to take no further action.

Incensed by the Nazi appropriation of Church property in Münster to accommodate people made homeless by an air raid, in July and August the Bishop of Münster , August von Galen , gave four sermons criticizing the Nazis for arresting Jesuits , confiscating church property and for the euthanasia program.

It is a terrible, unjust and catastrophic thing when man opposes his will to the will of God We are talking about men and women, our compatriots, our brothers and sisters.

Poor unproductive people if you wish, but does this mean that they have lost their right to live? Galen's sermons were not reported in the German press but were circulated illegally as leaflets.

The text was dropped by the Royal Air Force over German troops. Evans wrote that "This was the strongest, most explicit and most widespread protest movement against any policy since the beginning of the Third Reich".

In , Lifton wrote, "Nazi leaders faced the prospect of either having to imprison prominent, highly admired clergymen and other protesters — a course with consequences in terms of adverse public reaction they greatly feared — or else end the programme".

Galen had detailed knowledge of the euthanasia program by July but did not speak out until almost a year after Protestants had begun to protest.

In , Beth A. Worried lest they be classified as outsiders or internal enemies, they waited for Protestants, that is the "true Germans", to risk a confrontation with the government first.

If the Protestants were able to be critical of a Nazi policy, then Catholics could function as "good" Germans and yet be critical too.

On 29 June , Pope Pius XII issued the encyclical Mystici corporis Christi , in which he condemned the fact that "physically deformed people, mentally disturbed people and hereditarily ill people have at times been robbed of their lives" in Germany.

Following this, in September , a bold but ineffectual condemnation was read by bishops from pulpits across Germany, denouncing the killing of "the innocent and defenceless mentally handicapped and mentally ill, the incurably infirm and fatally wounded, innocent hostages and disarmed prisoners of war and criminal offenders, people of a foreign race or descent".

On 24 August , Hitler ordered the suspension of the T4 killings. After the invasion of the Soviet Union in June, many T4 personnel were transferred to the east to begin work on the final solution to the Jewish question.

The projected death total for the T4 program of 70, deaths had been reached by August After the bombing of Hamburg in July , occupants of old age homes were killed.

In the post-war trial of Dr. Hilda Wernicke , Berlin, August, , testimony was given that " old, broken women" who had survived the bombing of Stettin in June were euthanized at the Meseritz-Oberwalde Asylum.

After the war a series of trials was held in connection with the Nazi euthanasia programme at various places including: Dresden , Frankfurt , Graz , Nuremberg and Tübingen.

In December an American military tribunal commonly called the Doctors' trial prosecuted 23 doctors and administrators for their roles in war crimes and crimes against humanity.

These crimes included the systematic killing of those deemed "unworthy of life", including people with mental disabilities, the people who were institutionalized mentally ill, and people with physical impairments.

After days of proceedings, including the testimony of 85 witnesses and the submission of 1, documents, in August the court pronounced 16 of the defendants guilty.

Seven were sentenced to death and executed on 2 June , including Brandt and Brack. The particulars concerning such murders are set forth in paragraph 9 of count two of this indictment and are incorporated herein by reference.

Earlier, in , American forces tried seven staff members of the Hadamar killing centre for the killing of Soviet and Polish nationals, which was within their jurisdiction under international law, as these were the citizens of wartime allies.

Hadamar was within the American Zone of Occupation in Germany. This was before the Allied resolution of December , to prosecute individuals for "crimes against humanity" for such mass atrocities.

Alfons Klein, Karl Ruoff and Wilhelm Willig were sentenced to death and executed; the other four were given long prison sentences.

Adolf Wahlmann and Irmgard Huber , the chief physician and the head nurse, were convicted. Those files became available to the public only after the German Reunification in , leading to a new wave of research on these wartime crimes.

The German national memorial to the people with disabilities murdered by the Nazis was dedicated in in Berlin.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Action T4. Aktion T4 Hitler's order for Aktion T4. Child euthanasia in Nazi Germany.

Invasion of Poland and Soldau concentration camp. Action T4 personnel and T4-Gutachter. Nazi euthanasia and the Catholic Church.

Euthanasia trials and Doctors' trial. Mass euthanasia killings were also carried out in the Eastern European countries and territories Nazi Germany conquered during the war.

Categories are fluid, and no definitive figure can be assigned but historians put the total number of victims at around , Between and , about , women, men, and children were murdered from psychiatric institutions of the German Reich in several covert actions by gas, medication or starvation.

Zwischen und wurden ca. Goebbels is commonly said to have had club foot talipes equinovarus , a congenital condition. Shirer , who worked in Berlin as a journalist in the s and was acquainted with Goebbels, wrote in The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich that the deformity was from a childhood attack of osteomyelitis and a failed operation to correct it.

The senior participants in the programme always knew that it was not a law, even by the loose definition of legality prevailing in Nazi Germany.

The number of people murdered is calculated at , Foundation the Monument for the murdered Jews of Europe. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

A project by the Documentation Center of Austrian Resistance. Foundation the Monument for the Murdered Jews of Europe. Retrieved 4 March Der Spiegel in German.

Retrieved 22 August The Physician Werner Catel] in German. Retrieved 24 August Verwaltung des Krankenmordes [ Administration of Suicides ].

Canadian Medical Association Journal. Innenansichten eines medizinischen Täters im Nationalsozialismus.

Eine Edition seiner Briefe — [ Friedrich Mennecke. An Edition of his Letters ]. Hamburger Instituts für Sozialforschung.

Royals and the Reich: The Princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany. The perversion of German psychiatrists' ethics by the ideology of national socialism".

Carl Schneider committed suicide by hanging after his arrest Coburg und der Aufstieg des Nationalsozialismus in Deutschland in German. Books Adams, Mark B.

Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil and Russia. Monographs on the History and Philosophy of Biology. Aly, Gotz; Chroust, Peter Beiträge zur Nationalsozialistischen Gesundheits- und Sozial- politik.

Johns Hopkins University Press. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Berenbaum, Michael; Peck, Abraham J.

The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed and the Re-examined. Bialas, Wolfgang; Fritze, Lothar Nazi Ideology and Ethics.

Textbook of Psychiatry [ Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie ]. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Holocaust Origins, Implementation, Aftermath.

Who, Why, and How online ed. Complicity in the Holocaust:

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